Hypertension

Hypertension

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe complications and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. The pressure depends on the work being done by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.

Medical guidelines define hypertension as a blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), according to guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in November 2017.

Around 85 million people in the United States have high blood pressure.

Hypertension and heart disease are global health concerns. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that the growth of the processed food industry has impacted the amount of salt in diets worldwide, and that this plays a role in hypertension.
Fast facts on hypertension:

Here are some key points about hypertension. More detail is in the main article.

Normal blood pressure is 120 over 80 mm of mercury (mmHg), but hypertension is higher than 130 over 80 mmHg.
Acute causes of high blood pressure include stress, but it can happen on its own, or it can result from an underlying condition, such as kidney disease.
Unmanaged hypertension can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other problems.
Lifestyle factors are the best way to address high blood pressure.

While blood pressure is best regulated through the diet before it reaches the stage of hypertension, there is a range of treatment options.

Lifestyle adjustments are the standard first-line treatment for hypertension.

Suggested Treatment without Medication
Regular physical exercise
Doctors recommend that patients with hypertension engage in 30 minutes of moderate-intensity, dynamic, aerobic exercise. This can include walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming on 5 to 7 days of the week.

Stress reduction 
Avoiding stress, or developing strategies for managing unavoidable stress, can help with blood pressure control.

Using alcohol, drugs, smoking, and unhealthy eating to cope with stress will add to hypertensive problems. These should be avoided.

Smoking can raise blood pressure. Giving up smoking reduces the risk of hypertension, heart conditions, and other health issues.

Causes 
The cause of hypertension is often not known.
Around 1 in every 20 cases of hypertension is the effect of an underlying condition or medication.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of high blood pressure because the kidneys do not filter out fluid. This fluid excess leads to hypertension.

Risk factors 
A number of risk factors increase the chances of having hypertension.
Age: Hypertension is more common in people aged over 60 years. With age, blood pressure can increase steadily as the arteries become stiffer and narrower due to plaque build-up.
Ethnicity: Some ethnic groups are more prone to hypertension.
Size and weight: Being overweight or obese is a key risk factor.
Alcohol and tobacco use: Consuming large amounts of alcohol regularly can increase a person’s blood pressure, as can smoking tobacco.
Sex: The lifetime risk is the same for males and females, but men are more prone to hypertension at a younger age. The prevalence tends to be higher in older women.
Existing health conditions: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and high cholesterol levels can lead to hypertension, especially as people get older.

Other contributing factors include: 
– physical inactivity
– a salt-rich diet associated with processed and fatty foods
– low potassium in the diet
– alcohol and tobacco use
– certain diseases and medications

A family history of high blood pressure and poorly managed stress can also contribute.

Signs 
Blood pressure can be measured by a sphygmomanometer, or blood pressure monitor.

Having high blood pressure for a short time can be a normal response to many situations. Acute stress and intense exercise, for example, can briefly elevate blood pressure in a healthy person.

For this reason, a diagnosis of hypertension normally requires several readings that show high blood pressure over time.

The systolic reading of 130 mmHg refers to the pressure as the heart pumps blood around the body. The diastolic reading of 80 mmHg refers to the pressure as the heart relaxes and refills with blood.

A person with hypertension may not notice any symptoms, and it is often called the “silent killer.” While undetected, it can cause damage to the cardiovascular system and internal organs, such as the kidneys.

Regularly checking your blood pressure is vital, as there will usually be no symptoms to make you aware of the condition.

It is maintained that high blood pressure causes sweating, anxiety, sleeping problems, and blushing. However, in most cases, there will be no symptoms at all.

If blood pressure reaches the level of a hypertensive crisis, a person may experience headaches and nosebleeds.
Complications

Long-term hypertension can cause complications through atherosclerosis, where the formation of plaque results in the narrowing of blood vessels. This makes hypertension worse, as the heart must pump harder to deliver blood to the body.
High blood pressure raises the risk of a number of health problems, including a heart attack.
High blood pressure raises the risk of a number of health problems, including a heart attack.

Hypertension-related atherosclerosis can lead to:
– heart failure and heart attacks
– an aneurysm, or an abnormal bulge in the wall of an artery that can burst, causing severe bleeding and, in some cases, death
– kidney failure
– stroke
– amputation
– hypertensive retinopathies in the eye, which can lead to blindness

Regular blood pressure testing can help people avoid the more severe complications.

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